Mango is a popular and delicious fruit in India. Many parts of India have favorable weather and soil conditions for growing mangoes. India has diverse climatic conditions. Farmers can cultivate mangoes in different regions and seasons because of this. With the help of tractors like John Deere 5205 you can increase your mango yield.
Some of the major states that produce mangoes in India are Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Tamil Nadu. Each state has its own varieties and specialties of mangoes. For example, Ratnagiri in Maharashtra is famous for its Alphonso mangoes. These mangoes are highly sought after and profitable. Some other hubs for mango cultivation are Malihabad in Uttar Pradesh, Krishnagiri in Tamil Nadu, Junagadh in Gujarat, and Chittoor in Andhra Pradesh. Some places have experimented with mango cultivation in a controlled environment. These places include Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Kashmir. However, commercial cultivation of mangoes is not very successful in these places. The reason is the cold climate and high altitude.
Mango needs a tropical or subtropical weather condition to grow well. The daytime temperature should be between 24 to 30 degrees celsius for best growth conditions. The nighttime temperature should not fall below 10 degrees celsius. Winter makes the plant shed its leaves and prepare for flowering. Summer is the best time for flowering and fruiting.
Mango Farming – Things to Know
Mango prefers a temperature between 24 – 30 degrees celsius. Better fruiting and flowering require a minimum of 6 hours of direct sunlight. Both the weather and the temperature affect plant development.
Mango is not fussy about soil but a well-drained sandy loam or laterite soil is best suited for the cultivation of mangoes. Mango is perennial, but the first-year yield is usually low and the fruits are small and inferior. You can till up the soil with a power tiller mounted on your John Deere 5405.
The fruits should be thinned out to prevent the plant from overbearing. Overbearing will cause the plant to weaken and the resources will be wasted on growing the fruit. Furthermore, thinning the fruits will promote tree vigor and quality, this, in turn, will improve the yield in the subsequent years.
Mango plants will shed their leaves in winter, especially when the temperature falls below 10 degrees celsius at night. Moreover, it is important to care for plants at this stage with proper irrigation and fertilization and protect them from pests like hoppers and borers. The plants will start new growth again once the temperature rises in spring.
Varieties of Mango
Mango has a wide range of varieties available in the market today. Alphonso, Dasheri, Kesar, Langra, Neelam, Totapuri, and Himsagar are some common varieties that are available in India. Alphonso is the most popular and the highest priced variety with Kesar in the second.
Mango roots are deep and require moderate moisture. It is drought tolerant and can survive dry spells. However, too much water is also a problem and may cause rotting of roots and other diseases. Keeping the soil well-drained and not waterlogged or too wet is key to preventing diseases and improving tree health. An average yield of 10 tonnes per hectare is good. Yield up to 30 tonnes per hectare in some areas during peak season.
Profits in Mango Farming
One of the most lucrative farming ventures is mango cultivation, with average profits of up to 3 Lakh 50 Thousand (Rs. 350000) per hectare. Compared to many other crops, the profit is substantially higher. The information is based on research done in the Maharashtra districts of Sindhudurg and Ratnagiri in 2019–20 with a variety of small–medium–and large–scale farmers. Factors affecting the profit mainly include
Costs of saplings: When it came to establishing the farm, the cost of saplings was the highest. Just on saplings, farmers have paid over 80,000 rupees. The expense of obtaining decent saplings from nurseries and transporting them there is higher.
Local varieties are often inferior and the desired quantity is not available when needed. In the marketing stage, the grading and sorting costs approximately 60% after the production stage and contributes to approximately 60,000 Rs. The quality and size of the fruits during transit must be guaranteed through proper grading and sorting.
Bulk purchases are frequently cost-effective, allowing farmers to make more money. However, with huge amounts comes the trouble of having to store the fruits in a cool location if they go unsold. Cost of maintenance: In areas where summer goes above 40 degrees celsius, it is important to protect the crops. Moreover, a sprinkler system is essential for cooling the fruits and preventing sunburn. This is an extra cost for hotter areas. In some places, the expense is also increased by routine pruning, weeding, and fence to keep out pests and wildlife.
In conclusion, let us look at the yield details of mangoes. Mangoes are high-yielding crops. They produce approximately 10 tonnes of product per hectare. The fruit typically costs around 50 rupees per kilo, however market prices might range from 80 to 150 rupees. Depending on the variety and season, the price changes. Farmers can anticipate a gross income of about 5 lakh rupees even at an average price of 50 rupees per kilogramme. The net profit for the first year can range from 1.5 to 2 lakh rupees. When planting, training, and other one-time costs are taken into account, the profit for the following years is significantly higher than the profit for the first year. From the second year on, the profits per hectare are observed to be over 3 Lakh rupees.